Bushmeat Project Logo

Stop The Slaughter



Anthony L. Rose

The Biosynergy Institute and Antioch University Southern California

Abstract: Commercial hunting of African apes in logging concessions threatens their existence. Conservation strategies and players must expand into a multidisciplinary field of conservation development, which will synergise the relationship between humanity and nature. Recent information in epidemiology will link human health, apes and bushmeat and will make awareness of the bushmeat crisis global in nature. This complex crisis requires multilevel, interdependent treatment. Three solution clusters are recommended: 1-Fundamental: global alliance for bushmeat education and control; 2-Urgent: multidisciplinary crisis intervention field projects; 3-Sustaining: long-term conservation development programmes.

Problem: African Primates Are At Great Risk.

            Across the forest region of West and Central Africa a conflux of factors are making commercial hunting a leading threat to the survival of many primates, including the great apes. Primate hunting is reported in 27 of the 44 primate study and conservation projects described in IUCN’s recent status survey on African primates (Oates, 1996b). In 12 of these territories, hunting by humans is listed as a severe threat to species survival. The latest IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals (IUCN, 1996) shows a large increase in threat status for mammal species, with primates being the major order most threatened by extinction. The situation is worse in areas where most remaining apes and monkeys live, outside parks and reserves. In these areas, many unique and never-studied primate populations are being annihilated, and more will follow if current trends continue (Oates, 1996a; Rose, 1996e; Bowen-Jones, 1998; Ammann, pers. Comm.).

            The risk level for different species and populations varies with their numbers, reproductive vigour, and distributional range. Past declines have been correlated most with human population growth and habitat destruction, although bushmeat hunting has always occurred (Eltringham, 1984). Now, however, a growing body of evidence shows that shifts in human social and economic practices in the forests of Africa have greatly increased the killing of primates for meat. Oates (1996a) concludes “... while the total removal of natural habitat is clearly a major threat to the survival of many African forest primates, an analysis of survey data suggests that human predation tends to have a greater negative impact on primate populations than does selective logging or low-intensity bush-fallow agriculture.”


Primary Cause: Exploitation of Resources by Industrialised World.


            The bushmeat crisis has emerged as a direct result of an acceleration in the growth of industrial, extractive commerce in an economically poor and politically volatile region of Africa. This type of commercial expansion in prior centuries caused people to view wildlife as a material resource in Europe and North America (Cartmill, 1993). Over a decade ago, Mittermeier (1987) also warned of the pervasive global threat of primate hunting. Kellert (1996) reported that in much of central Africa “a general pattern of apathy, fatalism, and materialism towards nature and wildlife” prevails. Most contemporary Africans have lost their traditional “theistic” reverence for wildlife and many have taken on the harshest utilitarian view (Mordi, 1991). With the spread of cash economy, colonial religion, and urbanised central government, “tribal values of conserving and protecting non-human life are rendered spiritually inoperable, while new ecological and ethical foundations for sustaining nature have not emerged” (Kellert, 1996). Much of African natural and cultural heritage is vanishing in the chasm between spirit and ethics.

            Short-term economic incentives are prepotent in this milieu. A “live for today” attitude prevails. This holds for people struggling to survive, as well as for wealthy Africans. The competition for allegiance favours those who hire and pay local people to support unsustainable and destructive exploitative practices. One timber company executive described it rhetorically: “if you found a 100 franc note lying on the ground, would you pick it up?” (Incha, 1996). Bushmeat is like found money.

            There is general agreement among conservationists that the destructive outcomes of bushmeat commerce have reached crisis proportions (Rose, 1996b; Redmond, pers. comm.). What makes this a crisis is not only the numbers, but the way they develop. Juste et al. (1995) crystallise the essence of the process: “With the advent of modern firearms and improved communications and transport, subsistence hunting has given way to anarchic exploitation of wildlife to supply the rapidly growing cities with game.” The key word here is anarchic. Horta (1992) wrote that “... almost all the companies in the forestry sector are ‘outside the law’. Despite good legislation, there is no effective overseeing of actual operations.” It is imperative that international political and financial pressures and incentives be brought to bear on these uncontrolled business activities and the resultant social anarchy. At the same time, work must begin in earnest to expand African people’s values beyond the imported view of wildlife and wilderness as an exploitable natural resource.


Secondary Cause 1: Timber Industry Is The Catalyst.


            Ammann’s (1993, 1996c, 1998b) nine-year investigation of hunting pressures in and outside the IUCN (1996) surveyed areas strongly indicates that unprotected and unstudied apes -- especially those within 30 km of the expanding network of logging roads and towns -- are being devastated by a burgeoning commercial bushmeat trade. The main catalyst of this devastation is growth of the timber industry (Pearce & Ammann, 1995; Ammann, 1996b). Timber prices and profits are tied to provision of commercial bushmeat to migrant workers. Every logging town has its modern hunting camp, supplied with foreign-made guns and ammunition, and staffed by men and women who come from distant towns and cities, hoping to make a living in the forests (Rose, 1998). With hired indigenous forest dwellers, immigrant hunters comb the forests, shooting and trapping. The consumers are not simply logging camp families, however. The bushmeat trade stretches all the way to fine restaurants and private feasts in national capitals where more rare and expensive fare is available. Little is done to teach or enforce wildlife laws, and there is absence of political will and financial incentive. Gorilla, chimpanzee, and elephant are among the animals that are slaughtered in timber concessions and sold for their meat at prices ranging from two to six times the cost of the beef or pork that is readily available to consumers in larger towns and cities.

            Most timber executives admit there is a problem and say they are powerless to stop it (Incha, 1996; Splaney, 1998). Logging managers have been reluctant to let outsiders into their concessions, fearing that problems will be uncovered and business disrupted with no solutions provided. Nonetheless, a timber CEO recently invited outside investigators to help enforce laws against ape hunting in a million-acre concession in Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) after seeing photos of seven bonobos smoked and sold for bushmeat (Ammann, 1998a). Loggers in south-east Cameroon are responding to new documentation of butchered gorillas and smoked chimpanzees, meeting with conservationists to discuss possible action (Ammann, pers. comm.). The timber industry’s reliance on bushmeat to feed loggers and their inability to educate workers and govern their concessions leads to indiscriminate hunting, which not only fosters the breaking of laws, but also the breaking of customs. People whose cultural taboos once proscribed eating primates are beginning to try monkey and ape meat (Ammann, 1996c). As eating apes becomes an accepted practice, education and law enforcement becomes more difficult.

            For example, Hennessey (1995) studied bushmeat commerce around the Congolese city of Ouesso. He reported that 64% of the bushmeat in Ouesso originated from a single village and that one hunter may have supplied over 80 gorillas per year to the city. Hennessey estimated that 50 forest elephants were killed annually for meat and ivory in the study area, and 19 chimpanzees.

            Similar hunting and long-distance commercial bushmeat trade is described by Wilke et al. (1992) in the Sangha region west of Ouesso. There, many hunters preferred trading their meat at Ouesso for a higher price, rather than at logging concessions, confirming the report of Stromayer & Ekobo (1991) that Ouesso and Brazzaville are the ultimate sources of demand. Wilke et al. (1992) mentioned monkey meat for sale, but say nothing about apes. They recommended that wildlife conservation officers and biologists monitor and protect duikers, primates, and elephants to regulate “the harvest of forest protein”.

            Ammann & Pearce (1995) reported intense hunting of gorillas and chimpanzees for bushmeat in south-eastern Cameroon, across the border west of Wilke’s study site. While some ape meat is sold to logging workers in these forests, most is shipped on logging lorries to the provincial capital of Bertoua and beyond to Yaounde and Douala where more profit can be made. Ammann (1998a) confirmed Hennessey’s (1995) findings that a small portion of Cameroon bushmeat crosses the border for sale in Ouesso.

            Illegal bushmeat including gorilla, chimpanzee and bonobo has been photographed in villages near Lope, Ndoki, and Dja Reserves, and in city markets at Yaounde, Bangui, Kinshasa, Pt Noire, and Libreville (Ammann: 1996a, 1997, 1998a; McRae & Ammann, 1997). Steel (1994) projects half the meat sold in Gabon city and village markets is bushmeat: an estimated $50 million unpoliced trade. Twenty percent of the bushmeat in that report is primates. More recently in a region wide review Wilkie & Carpenter (1999) suggest that annual “bushmeat consumption across the Congo Basin may exceed 1 million metric tons.”  Extrapolating from the above studies, the bushmeat trade across equatorial Africa could be more than a two billion-dollar annual business.  If logging and hunting continue to expand unchecked, the numbers of monkeys and apes killed for the cooking pot will increase.



Secondary Cause 2: Modern Weaponry Allows All Hunting To Threaten Ape Populations.


             Demand for chimpanzee and gorilla meat can be substantial, even in areas with no logging intrusion. With the availability of guns, this hunting appears to be unsustainable (Wilkie & Carpenter, 1999). Kano and Asato (1994) compared ape density and hunting pressure from 29 villages in northeastern Congo Republic where no logging and no commercial hunting occurred.  They reported that the majority of their informants were willing to eat gorilla and chimpanzee meat. Kano and Asato measured ape population density and asserted that the survival of both ape populations is at serious risk in this territory, as it is farther east for the bonobo “unless a strong system can be established which combines effective protection with the provision of attractive substitutes for ape meat to the local people.” The finding that village hunting of apes in a large habitat area is unsustainable when guns are used causes even more concern about the popular and growing commercial bushmeat trade supported by the timber industry.

            Discussion with scores of field researchers and conservationists (Rose, 1996b, c, d; Rose & Ammann, 1996) produced consensus that “if the present trend in forest exploitation continues without a radical shift in our approach to conservation, most edible wildlife in the equatorial forests of Africa will be butchered before the viable habitat is torn down” (Rose, 1996e). This conclusion had already been reached by Oates (1996a) and has been confirmed recently by a coalition of the 44 wildlife protection and conservation NGOs in the EU Ape Alliance (Redmond, pers. comm.). Jane Goodall (Bowen-Jones, 1998) declared that “unless we work together to change attitudes at all levels -- from world leaders to the consumers of illegal bushmeat -- there will be no viable populations of great apes in the wild within 50 years.”  Further affirmation of the crisis came when more than 30 North American zoos, animal welfare, rainforest, and wildife conservation groups agreed to form a Bushmeat Crisis Task Force headquartered in Washington, D.C.  The BCTF has elected a steering committee and will hire a full time professional coordinator to initiate collaborative policy, public education, and field development projects (Rose, 1999).


Proposed Strategies


Strategy 1: Conservation must serve all of nature, humans included.


            Rapid and lasting success will come to innovative conservation educators and developers who work directly with the full range of people involved in expanding human commerce. These inclusive and proactive partnerships will develop socially and ecologically sound programmes to satisfy the human needs that now drive the illegal and unsustainable commercial extraction and consumption of fauna and flora in Africa. Innovators must help human communities in forest, village, town, and city to improve their quality of life by revitalising a synergistic relationship within local and regional ecosystems. Teams of professionals and community leaders will collaborate to convert poachers to game guards, and implement eco-social improvement projects. The study of non-human biology and behaviour will be one of many conservation development services, sustained in the long term by practical interventions to transform human values and effect eco-social accountability.

            As further evidence of the importance of synergising ecological and human social factors, changes are occurring that could radically alter the focus of this endeavour. In the past we have been looking at the explosion of illegal bushmeat commerce as a wildlife crisis. For the apes in particular it has been manifested as a fight against the extinction of our closest living kin. But that genetic kinship is now being postulated to be the source of a crisis that threatens the health of humankind. Medical scientists have recently uncovered evidence suggesting that western African chimpanzees are the original source of the viruses that have propagated AIDS. Bushmeat hunting along each new logging road might bring out more than ape meat. It could transmit new forms of SIV that could further expand the AIDS epidemic.

            Virologists have begun to present their evidence in journals (Gao et al, 1999) and at major international conferences (Hahn, 1999a, b).  Medical researchers and conservationists seem to agree that we must stop the hunting and butchering of wild chimpanzees in order to avoid transmission of new strains of SIV and enable new studies of wild apes in situ (Weiss & Wrangham, 1999). Biomedical research and action to influence the aetiology and management of these viruses in apes and in bushmeat hunters and traders may expose the keys to preventing further spread of HIV and AIDS (Rose, 1999).  The escalation of the bushmeat crisis from a regional conservation challenge to a global health issue increases the complexity of the problem many times over. On every continent people are concerned about the AIDS epidemic. Forms of HIV now coming under control could be replaced by variants that renew the scourge.  The chimpanzee virus factor is likely to significantly alter conservation priorities.



Strategy 2. Conservation developers will need more than multidisciplinary competence and vision.


            Finally, we must recognize that the extremes of poverty, population expansion, exploitive corruption, and ethnic turmoil in great ape range countries sets a stage for civil and military strife of the most dangerous and deadly kind.  In winter 1999 the last gorilla touring facility operating in central Africa, at Bwindi Impenitrable Forest, was destroyed and tourists and field assistants were taken into the forest to be held hostage and murdered by rebel militias.  Tourism, which is Uganda’s second most profitable national industry, has been devastated and the fate of their conservation program hangs in the balance.  To protect and support innocent people and dwindling wildlife in this milieu requires great courage and commitment, as well as extraordinary international backing.

            We must gain the aid and involvement of the most wealthy, powerful, and moral people and agencies in the world. To succeed in the face of rampant resource consumption, regional conflagration, and local anarchy, conservation must be guided by five strategic imperatives: 


Five Strategic Conservation Imperatives


A.Social and moral leaders must promote humanity’s profound obligation to conserve wildlife and wilderness and to restore nature.


B.Political & economic authority must place conservation on par with human rights and welfare.


C.Conservationists must go beyond protecting biodiversity to assuring the synergy of human social systems and natural ecology.


D.Public demand for intrinsic and spiritual values of nature must supersede utilitarian exploitation and underwrite massive long-term programmes in conservation development.


E.All wildlife habitats must be considered sacrosanct, and human intrusion must be managed in a moral, businesslike, and competent way for the global good.



Matrix of Solutions


            During three years of focus on illegal bushmeat commerce I have heard and conceived an ever-expanding matrix of solutions to the many elements of the crisis. Ultimately all these elements must be addressed, if the destruction and dangers of the bushmeat business are to be reversed. Currently I see ten parts to the bushmeat crisis agenda --  all important. They are listed below in three groups. The first group includes items that are fundamental to initiating solutions. The second deals with areas that need urgent action. The third lists solutions leading to long-term sustainability.


Group 1 (Fundamental): Global Alliance for Bushmeat Crisis Education and Control


A.  Bushmeat Alliance -- Organise social change, peacekeeping, and conservation groups, select government agencies, disease research/control organisations, agribusiness, and financial institutions to collaborate to stop the trade in commercial bushmeat and its concomitant adverse effects on apes and other endangered species, local cultures, natural ecosystems, and human health. Only by making the effective treatment of this crisis a requirement for international finance and development in Africa, will the needed changes occur.


B.  Wildlife Protection Endowments  --  Endow and institutionalise permanent wildlife protection teams for established parks and reserves, as well as mobile units to work in resource extraction areas. These groups will use community-based preventive techniques, inform people about ecological and health risks, encourage alternatives to bushmeat commerce, and enforce wildlife laws through interdiction and prosecution.


C.  Bushmeat Education Campaign  --  Conduct international campaigns to evoke public concern about the destructive effects of the bushmeat crisis. Produce books and magazines as well as TV and cinema programs; finance and organise locally developed radio and newsprint campaigns to motivate protection of apes and other endangered wildlife and to stimulate conservation development in equatorial Africa.

Group 2 (Urgent): Multidisciplinary Crisis Intervention Field Projects


A.  Health Monitoring Programs  --  Design and install methods to study, assess, monitor, prevent and treat interspecies viral and bacterial transmissions in territories where bushmeat hunting and commerce, animal pet and orphan caretaking, and other human contact with apes and other wildlife occurs.


B.  Vital Ecosystem Preservation -- Require and enable ecosystem exploiters to become conservation developers to establish bushmeat-free operations, develop effective wildlife and forest protection programmes, provide ecologically renewable products for workers and commercial consumers, and integrate disease and eco-social synergy management into their field operations.


C.  Bushmeat Control Mobilization --  Set up projects to recruit, train and re-employ bushmeat hunters as park guards, field assistants, census takers, teachers and bushmeat monitors. Swift reduction of endangered ape and wildlife killing will come from in-situ projects that use hunters’ skills and knowledge to support conservation.


D.  Bushmeat Orphan Recovery --  Develop and implement projects to seek and safeguard ape bushmeat orphans in hunting camps, homes, businesses, zoos, and sanctuaries and to employ them in health and education efforts to engender positive conservation values in local people and communities in regions where wildlife commerce is growing at highest rates.



Group 3 (Sustaining): Long-term Conservation Development Programs


A.  Eco-social Synergy Management --  Develop and install mechanisms to restore and maintain synergistic relationships between the natural ecology and human social systems in the widest possible range of primate habitat. Begin with territories where human exploitation threatens life and health of apes and monkeys, humans, and natural ecosystems the most.


B.  Bushmeat Alternatives --  Underwrite and develop alternative protein sources, non-destructive forest product businesses, ecologically sound community gardens and farms, and bushmeat-free markets and restaurants in forest, village, farm, and urban areas where domestic food and economic alternatives are needed most to counter commerce in endangered wildlife.


C.  Nature / Wildlife Missions --  Establish mobile training and development projects to travel the religious missionary and public school circuits and help teachers and pastors implement “wildlife missions” to increase awareness of the economic, ecological, and health dangers of the endangered wildlife trade, foster moral and humanistic concerns for living wildlife, and initiate community-based conservation projects.


            The treatment of these solutions as a whole can make a difference immediately, and in the long term. Focus on any one item in isolation will eventually fail. Conservationists disagree as to which of the solutions is more important. It is time to accept that all are important; all must be done. And we must do them in collaboration, not in the usual competitive modes. The battles among egos, professions, organisations, cultures, religions, and nations must be set aside now. I remain hopeful that this will be accomplished and that we can form and maintain truly effective multidisciplinary teams to confront this complex crisis with the goodwill and competence it requires. The future of apes and other wildlife, equatorial ecosystems, African societies, and human health depends on it.




Ammann, K. 1993. Orphans of the forest (Parts I). SWARA, January: Pp. 16-19.

Ammann, K. 1994. Orphans of the forest (Parts II). SWARA, February: Pp. 13-14.

Ammann, K. 1994. The bushmeat babies. BBC Wildlife, October: Pp. 16-24.

Ammann, K. 1996a. Primates in peril. Outdoor Photographer, February:  Pp. 58-61, 76-77.

Ammann, K. 1996b. Timber and bushmeat industries are linked throughout west/central Africa. Talk at Seminaire sur

         l’Impact de l'Exploitation Forestiere sur la Faune Sauvage, Bertoua, Cameroon, April.

Ammann, K. 1996c. Halting the bushmeat trade: Saving the great apes. Talk at World Congress for Animals,

       Wash. DC, June.

Ammann, K. 1997. Gorillas. Insight Topics, Apa Publications (HK) Ltd., Hong Kong.

Ammann, K. 1998a. The conservation status of the bonobo in the one million hectare Siforzal/Danzer logging

         concession in Central D.R.Congo. Website: http://biosynergy.org/bushmeat/bonobo398.htm

Ammann. K. (In press 1998b) Conservation in central Africa: A more business-like approach. African Primates, 3.

Bowen-Jones (Ed.)  1998. The African Bushmeat Trade: A Recipe for Extinction, Ape Alliance, London.

Cartmill, M. 1993. A View to a Death in the Morning: Hunting & Nature through History. Harvard U. Press, Cambridge.

Eltringham, S.K. 1984. Wildlife Resources and Economic Development. John Wiley and Sons, New York.

Gao et al.  1999.  Origin of HIV-1 in the chimpanzee Pan troglodytes troglodytes.  Nature: 397; Pp. 436-441.

Hahn, B. H. 1999a. "Origin of HIV-1 in Pan troglodytes troglodytes." Talk at 1999 Keystone Symposium on HIV

         Vaccine Development:  Opportunities and Challenges/AIDS Pathogenesis. Denver, January.

Hahn, B. 1999b. "The origin of HIV-1: A puzzle solved?" Keynote speech at 6th Conference on Retroviruses and

         Opportunistic Infections. Chicago, January.

Hennessey, A. B. 1995. A Study of the Meat Trade in Ouesso, Republic of Congo. Unpublished Report to GTZ,


Horta, K. 1993. Logging in the Congo: Massive fraud threatens the forests. World Rainforest Report, 24: Pp. 12-13.

Incha Productions/ZSE-TV. 1996. Twilight of the Apes. ZSE-TV, Johannesburg (Video: 25 min.).

IUCN.  1996.  The 1996 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals.  IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.

Juste, J., J.E Fa, J.P. Del Val, & J. Castroviejo. 1995. Market dynamics of bushmeat species in Equatorial Guinea.

          Journal of Applied Ecology 32: 454-67.

Kano, T.& R Asato.  1994. Hunting pressure on chimpanzees and gorillas in the Motaba River area, northeastern

         Congo. African Study Monographs 15: 143-162.

Kellert, S.R. 1996. The Value of Life: Biological Diversity and Human Society. Island Press, Washington D.C.

McRae, M. & K. Ammann. 1997. Road kill in Cameroon. Natural History Magazine 106, 1, 36-47, 74-5.

Mittermeier, R. A. 1987. Effects of hunting on rain forest primates. In Primate Conservation in the Tropical Rain

         Forest, Alan R. Liss,  New York. Pp. 109-146.

Mordi, R. 1991. Attitudes toward wildlife in Botswana. Garland, New York.

Oates, J.F. 1996a Habitat alteration, hunting, and the conservation of folivourous primates in African forests.  

       Australian Journal         of Ecology 21: 1-9.

Oates, J.F.  1996b.  African Primates:  Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan.  Revised edition.  The World

       Conservation Union (IUCN), Gland, Switzerland.

Pearce, J. & K. Ammann. 1995. Slaughter of the Apes: How the tropical timber industry is devouring Africa's great apes.

       World Society for the Protection of Animals, London.

Rose, A. L. (1996a) Orangutans, science and collective reality.  In The Neglected Ape. R. Nadler, B. Galdikas,

         L. Sheeran, & N. Rosen, eds. Plenum Press, New York, pp. 29-40.

Rose, A. L. (1996b) Commercial exploitation of great ape bushmeat. In Rapport du seminaire sur l'impact de

         l'exploitation forestiere sur la faune sauvage. R. Ngoufo, J. Pearce, B. Yadji, D. Guele, & L. Lima, eds.

         Cameroon MINEF & WSPA, Bertoua, pp. 18-20.

Rose, A. L. 1996c. The African forest bushmeat crisis: Report to ASP. African Primates 2: 32-34.

Rose, A. L. 1996d. The bushmeat crisis is conservation's first priority. Talk at IUCN Primate Conservation

       Roundtable Discussion on an Action Agenda, at XVIth Congress of IPS/ASP, Madison, August.

Rose, A. L. 1996e. The African great ape bushmeat crisis. Pan Africa News 3: 1-6.

Rose, A. L. 1997. The African primate bushmeat crisis: Action workshop. Annual Meeting of the American

         Society of Primatologists, San Diego, June.

Rose, A. L. 1998. Finding paradise in a hunting camp: Turning poachers to protectors. Journal of the Southwestern

         Anthropological          Association 38: 4-11.

Rose, A. L. 1999.  Conservation Organizations ... Call for Immediate Action to Address the Commercial Bushmeat Crisis

         in Tropical African Countries. Website: http://biosynergy.org/bushmeat/aza_consensus_2-99.atm

Rose, A. L. & K. Ammann. 1996. The African great ape bushmeat crisis. Talk and workshop at XVIth Congress

         of International Primatological Society/American Society of Primatologists, Madison, August.

Rose, A. L., Ammann, K., and Mellow, J.  1999.  Potential impact of hunting practices on cross-species transmission of

         viruses.  Abstract in proceedings of Workshop on Cross-Species Transmission of Viruses, NIAID and CDC, Atlanta.

Splaney, L. 1998. Hunting is greater threat to primates than destruction of habitats. New Scientist , March: 18-19.

Steel, E. A. 1994. Study of the Value and Volume of Bushmeat Commerce in Gabon. Report to WWF & Gabon

         Ministry of Forests  & Environment, Libreville.

Stromayer, K. & A. Ekobo. 1991. Biological surveys of southwest Cameroon. Report to Wildlife Conservation International.

Weiss, R. A. & Wrangham, R. W.  1999.  From Pan to pandemic.  Nature: 397, 385-6.

Wilkie, D. S., J. G. Sidle & G. C. Boundzanga. 1992.  Mechanized logging, market hunting, and a bank loan in

         Congo. Conservation Biology 6: 570-580.

Wilkie, D.S. & J.F. Carpenter. 1999.  Bushmeat hunting in the Congo Basin: an assessment of impacts and options

         for mitigation.  Biodiversity and Conservation, (in press).

Yadji, B. 1996. A new dynamic for conservation of wildlife resources. Rapport du Seminaire sur l'Impact de

       l'Exploitation Forestiere sur la Faune Sauvage.  R. Ngoufo, J. Pearce, B. Yadji, D. Guele, & .L Lima, eds.

       Cameroon MINEF & WSPA, Bertoua. pp. 4-8. 




* Anthony Rose is an applied social psychologist and organisation developer who has studied macaques, apes, and humans, taught animal behaviour and human psychosocial evolution, and consulted in the private sector and government on forest management, military diplomacy, religious community development, educational innovation, corporate strategic planning, and health care quality assurance. He now devotes most of his professional efforts to influencing the human dimensions of wildlife and wilderness conservation. His inquiries into the bushmeat crisis have focused on commercial hunting camps in Cameroon, while his research in human-primate interaction have covered most of the world where apes and monkeys live. Rose has been a fellow at the UCLA Brain Research Institute, founder of the Center for Studies of the Person, and director of organisation design and research for Kaiser-Permanente. He is a founder of The Biosynergy Institute and the Southern California Primate Research Forum and a member of the IUCN/SSC African Primate Specialists Group. Rose is professor at Antioch University Southern California where he serves as director of the Institute for Conservation Education and Development.


The Biosynergy Institute  /  Bushmeat Project               

A version of this article is published in African Primates -  the journal of the African Primate Specialists Group of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Species Survival Commission (SSC):Rose, A. L. 1998. Growing commerce in bushmeat destroys great apes and threatens humanity. African Primates 3: 6-10.

Copyright © 2000 & The Goldray Group
Site Development by The Goldray Group          Web Space from i95.net
Technical comments/questions to